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Estonian Citizenship: How to become a citizen of Estonia

Estonian citizenship is a right that every citizen of Estonia is entitled to. It is based on the principle of “jus sanguinis. This principle states that a person’s citizenship is derived from their parent or grandparent who was a citizen of Estonia at the time of their birth. You can acquire Estonian citizenship through naturalization or by descent.

For some individuals, the first thing that comes to mind is forests. Estonia is a land filled with lakes and forests. The country is home to 2 million people, and about half of the country is forested. Tallinn, the capital city, is located on the coast of the Baltic Sea.

Estonia became independent in 1991, after the fall of the Soviet Union. The country has been a member of NATO since 2004 and a member of the European Union since 2004. Estonia has been a democracy since 1918, when it declared its independence from Russia.

How to become a citizen of Estonia

According to the Estonian Citizenship Act, an individual can become an Estonian citizen in one of the following ways:

  1. By birth: A person is a citizen of Estonia if they were born in Estonia or if one of their parents is an Estonian national.
  2. By naturalization: A person can become a citizen of Estonia by naturalization if they meet the requirements specified in the Citizenship Act. For example, the applicant must have resided in Estonia for at least eight years, know the Estonian language, and be familiar with the Constitution of Estonia.
  3. By descent: If a person’s parents are not citizens of any country, but one of the parents is a citizen of Estonia, the child is automatically a citizen of Estonia.

What are the Benefits of citizenship in Estonia?

You can apply for Estonian citizenship if you are a foreigner and live in Estonia. There are many benefits to obtaining Estonian citizenship.

  • One of the main benefits is that you can travel without a visa to over 160 countries.
  • Another benefit is that you can work in any profession in Estonia.
  • You also have the right to vote and run for office in local and national elections.
  • As an Estonian citizen, you also have the right to reside in Estonia permanently.
  • You can access various social services and healthcare benefits as an Estonian citizen.
  • Finally, if you ever need to travel abroad, Estonian citizenship will make obtaining a visa easier.

How to Apply for Estonian Citizenship?

Estonia is a country in Northern Europe. If you would like to apply for Estonian citizenship, there are a few things you need to know.

  • First, check your eligibility status and if you are qualified to apply. 
  • You must be up to 18 years old and have been a legal resident of Estonia for at least eight years.
  • If you satisfy these conditions, the next step is to complete the application form and submit it along with the required documents.

The application approach can be a bit complex, so it is vital to consult an immigration lawyer if you have any questions.

What Are The Documents Necessary to Apply for an Estonian Citizenship

Suppose you are a citizen of a foreign country and want to become an Estonian citizen. In that case, you must apply for citizenship under the Citizenship Act. To be eligible for Estonian citizenship, you must meet the following requirements:

  • You must be a permanent resident of Estonia.
  • You must have command of the Estonian language. In some conditions, you may be exempt from this requirement if you pass an examination in the Estonian language.
  • You must know Estonia’s history and constitutional order.
  • You must have no criminal record.

The documents required to apply for Estonian citizenship vary depending on your situation but typically include the following:

  • A completed application form.
  • Proof of identity and residency in Estonia.
  • Proof of command of the Estonian language.

Estonia Citizenship Test

The citizenship test in Estonia is a mandatory requirement for all people who want to become Estonian citizens. The test consists of 20 questions. It equally covers topics like the history and geography of Estonia, as well as its laws and government. Those taking the test must score at least 15 out of 20 to pass.

Some of the questions on the citizenship test can be pretty difficult, which is why many people choose to prepare for it by studying beforehand. There are several ways to do this, including online courses, textbooks, and even apps.

Although the citizenship test may seem daunting at first, with some preparation, it’s achievable. And once you’ve passed it, you’ll be one step closer to becoming an Estonian citizen!

Does Estonia Allow Dual Citizenship?

Estonia does not expressly forbid dual citizenship but does not explicitly allow it. As a result, the law is ambiguous on the matter. In principle, Estonian citizens are only allowed to have one other citizenship.

Unfortunately, there are many exceptions to this rule. For example, dual citizenship may be allowed if one of the citizens is a national of another European Union country or if they are a citizen of a country in a visa-free agreement with Estonia.

In addition, children born in Estonia to parents who are not Estonian citizens may retain their dual citizenship until they reach adulthood. However, if they choose to renounce their foreign citizenship later on, they must do so before reaching 25.

Estonian Citizenship for Minor

Since the early ’90s, when Estonia regained its independence after decades of Soviet rule, the country has been working to develop a modern and democratic society.

A critical part of this process has been the creation of a citizenship law that is fair and inclusive. As a result, children can always become citizens of Estonia, even if they were born abroad and had no connection to Estonia other than their parents.

In 2011, the Estonian Parliament passed a new law that made it easier for children to gain citizenship. The new law allows children to automatically become citizens if at least one parent is a citizen of Estonia or if they are born in Estonia. The law also makes it easier for children adopted by Estonian citizens to become citizens.

Documents to apply for Estonian Citizenship for minor

To apply for Estonian citizenship for a minor, you will have to tender the following documents;

  • The child’s birth certificate
  • Parents’ marriage certificate or proof of registered partnership
  • Parents’ passports
  • Child’s passport
  • Evidence of the child’s residence in Estonia for at least eight years (e.g., school and medical records)
  • Certificate of the child’s Estonian language skills (if available)

Frequently Asked Questions

How long can it take me to obtain citizenship in Estonia?

It takes about two years to get citizenship in Estonia. However, the process is relatively straightforward, and there are few requirements. To apply for citizenship, you must be a resident of Estonia and have been living there for at least eight years. You must equally pass a language test and be of good character.

Who can obtain Estonian citizenship

Estonian citizenship can be obtained by birth, naturalization, or descent. To be eligible for naturalization, you must have been a legal resident of Estonia for at least five years. You must also have a good knowledge of the Estonian language and demonstrate sufficient integration into Estonian society. Descent is based on the principle of jus sanguinis, meaning that citizenship is passed down from the parents to their children.

Can I buy Estonia citizenship?

Yes, you can buy citizenship in Estonia. The process is relatively simple. The government offers several investment options that will allow you to become a citizen. However, there are some restrictions on the persons to application. Be sure to check the eligibility requirements before you begin the process.

Which country offers citizenship easily?

Citizenship laws is not the same with every country, and some countries make it much easier to obtain citizenship than others. Generally speaking, the countries that offer citizenship quickly have low requirements for naturalization or those that offer citizenship through investment programs.

Can I get a golden passport in Estonia?

Yes, you can get a golden passport in Estonia. To be eligible, you must make a significant investment in Estonia. The investment can be in real estate, venture capital, or private equity. In addition, you will enjoy visa-free travel to all Schengen Area countries with a golden passport.

How much is a golden passport?

A golden passport in Estonia is worth €650,000. This price includes a donation to the government of Estonia of €100,000 and purchasing at least €550,000 worth of Estonian government bonds.


Gaining Estonian citizenship is a relatively straightforward process. There are a lot of benefits it offers. The country is a member of the European Union and provides a high quality of life, making it an attractive place to live. By becoming a citizen of Estonia, you will have access to all the rights and privileges that come with EU membership, including freedom of movement and the ability to work in any country within the EU.

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